Prof.Dr Uğur Kaynak
Daha önce de iki kez başıma geldi. İki ayrı uluslar arası yayın kuruluşuna gönderdiğim makalelerim iki yıl boyunca editör ve reviever tarafından oyalandı. Sonra makalede uygulanması olanaksız istekler ileri sürüldü. Ve sonunda ufak tefek değişikliklerle reviever tarafından intihal yapılarak yayınlandı. Diğeri ise noktasına virgülüne kadar değiştirmeden kendi ismini ilave edip yayınlandı.
Bu ekte sunduğum teorim de bir yıldan beridir editörde duruyor. Henüz reviever’e bile gönderilmedi. Aynı olay (intihal) tekrarlanacakmış gibi duruyor. O nedenle elimde bir kanıt olması için en uygun ortam olarak facebookta kopyasını yayınlamak zorunda kaldım. Sevgili takipçilerim. Okumak zorunda değilsiniz.
SEVEN STEP EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
1: Retired from University of Kocaeli, Department of Geophysics-Turkey.
Key Words: HII Nebula, Planetary Nebula, Stellar Iron Core, Planetary Iron Core, Silicate Mantle.
Famous scientists in the historical age, astronomers and astrophysicists in the modern age proposed valuable theories about the Solar System Evolution like Monistic and Dualistic ones in the past or Cold Precipitation Process in modern ages. But now we know a lot about the inner part of our own planet. In practice our planet has an iron core, silicate mantle and hydrosphere and atmosphere layers beginning from center to the outermost part of it respectively. If we order each of the layers to different producing operators then we have a new theory about our (Planetary) Solar System. The impossibility of the layering or separating of the Earth Iron Core and Earth Mantle because of the existence of the sulfur in the core and the lower melting temperature of the outer part of the iron core according to the Fayalite + Fosterite at the bottom part of the mantle, forced us to think about a new evolution process to the Solar System. The most distinguished property of the new theory will be its multi-step character against to the mono-step “Nebulae of Every Thing” theories.
GAMOV, G., (1964)(11) Call Proto Sun to the father of the Sun in his book titled “A Star Called The Sun”. It is known that the nuclear clock of the Solar System was been start from zero, at -4.6 Ga, because of the (Dwarf?) Nova Phase of the Sun. There are many papers about some extraordinary events occurred after 1 Ga from those of main nuclear synthesis days, that means -3.6 Ga before recent. Some of them are listed here:
The Lava Mares on the Mercury and on the Moon are younger than their surrounding mountain belts. (L.B.RONKA, 1971)(6). Volcanic Terrain on Mercury Credit. NASA: Therefore, like our Moon’s maria, these craters on Mercury are thought to have been flooded by lava floes that are old but not as old as the surrounding more highly cratered surface. Why the Earth suddenly felt cold, unless its quilt did not pull out suddenly? Said Alan D. BRANDON, and his co-workers-2003)(1). NASA: Detailed chemical and dating analyses indicate that during an explosive volcanic eruption 3.64 Billion years ago, small drops of molten rock cooled rapidly into the nearly spherical colored grains. NASA announced that there is a fossil of a bacteria on a meteorite found on Sahara Desert which there are similar bacteria on Earth, in 1996. On the other hand the age of the bacteria was -3.6 Ga, said a NASA spokesman. (Domestic Press.) There are many researching papers about beginning of the life on the Earth is 3.6 Ga ago. One of them is; Sylvie DERENNE and her co-workers-2008,(2) write on their Abstract… “As kerogen must be contemporaneous of the solidification of the chert, this observation should be regarded as an evidence for the presence of life on Earth, 3,5 Gy ago”…)
Argument-The only reason of the existence of planetary magnetic fields is “they have inner or outer or single molten iron-nickel cores”. There is a reference paper announced here that there must be an iron plasma core in the central part of the Helium core in some of stars and also in our Sun. (F.W., GIACOBBE- 2003(3).)
Question-If Solar System was been slowly cooled down and condensed from a “Main Nebula of Everything” in a single process then nobody can explain the existence of their magnetic field which means from where those of iron-nickel cores came in the central parts of the two Terrestrial Planets, four Jovian planets, a natural Satellite (And Sun?). Was there any HI or HII nebula having those huge amounts of iron masses in Orphan Orion Arm of the Milky Way Galaxy?
Answer-There is only one rational answer. There was a White Dwarf having Fe, Ni, Co and their isotopes among Sun’s Forefathers.
Argument-The angular momentum of the Solar System must be kept as the angular momentum of the Main Nebula, obeying the “Universal Momentum Conservation Law”.
Questions-What is the forcing agent of the natural satellite to rotate with a retrograde rotation and planet with a retrograde revolution? What happened to the Universal Momentum Conservation Law? Why the observed angular momentum has 22 times error value related to the calculated one.
Answer-The Solar System was not created from a “Matchless Single Main Nebula of Everything” but could be formed from different consecutive Planetary Nebulas.
Argument-The existent of the elements with super heavy nuclei such as the series of Lanthanides and Actinides have been detected in all the samples of the Earth, Moon and Mars, because they are all in the same stellar system. There is not any nebula including that type of the heavy elements, except existence of some neighbor super nova or hyper nova remnants. A few HI and HII nebula have been detected on the Orphan Orion Arm whereas the first one is built up by the atomic Hydrogen (H) and the second one is built by molecular Hydrogen (H2). Nowadays, a new found HII nebula is detected in a close location to Solar System (10) which useful to the fuel supplements mentioned following paragraphs.
Question-Where is the Carbon, Sulfur, Oxygen, Silicon, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium…, and Iron containing Nebula?
Answer-The whole of the periodic elements can be found at the Consecutive Planetary Nebulas, which was produced by multiple explosions of the central stars, because the infernos of the stars were used to produce the heavy elements, instead of sinful human grilling.
Here, some important questions there are in addition: Why the Outer Core – Mantle boundary of the Earth is so sharp on the “D Layer”? Is this type of boundary sharpness can be constructed by the convection and bedding activity? Why the ceiling of the outer core is undulated? Can we imagine that if these undulations were the traces of the crowded orbit days, when it was a huge asteroid? (ANDREAS VOGEL, 1989)(4)
A NEW THEORY ABOUT EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
Let’s call M0 the Mass of our modern Sun. First of all, we need a red gas giant star with a mass about M0 and neighbored an HII Cloud. The existence of a closed companion star with a mass about 1.5 x M0 is not a necessity but it was been a requirement for an alternative process. Our beginning conditions need only existence of this kind of red gas star and an HII Cloud.
1. The designed giant gas star which was the fourth generation root of our Sun means Grand-Grand Father of Sun must have had all of the nuclear fuel types. When the expanding stopped and outermost materials of the giant star began to rush over the central core, the central Helium was fired which was the silicon, carbon and finally iron producing step. Its iron core which did not contain a nuclear fuel any more began cooling and squeezing as a result of the Helium fuel deficiency. The outermost levels began to rush to the core. However during this period the temperature within the iron core began to increase and recoiled abnormally then it ejected all of the heavy elements of convective material to the surrounding space. (Planetary Nebula-1-a.) There was an iron made White Dwarf in its center which we call Father of Grand Father of Sun. ALAN D. BRANDON at all-2003(1), and SYLVIE DRENNE at al-2008)(2) are implying those of conditions in their papers. Approximately 12,000 km diameter of iron core was released in the open space that known as “White Dwarf”, in the end of this stage.
2. The chemical composition of that of the White Dwarf was isomorphic alloy of the 52Fe26, 56Fe26, 57Fe26, 57Co27 and finally 56Ni28 isotope. This viscous-elastic and isotropic alloy composed of approximately 85% iron + 10% nickel + 4% S”, 1% accessory elements is useful for us, because it had enough amount of isotopes which produce high heat flow enough to explode themselves. At the end of this stage, the White Dwarf was cracked out, by force of the heat produced deformation of heat flowing isotopes and compression stress of the “fast getting cool” penetrating from its surface. The production was Planetary Nebula-1-b that it was going to be “a black star system” made by Iron-Nickel Debris.
3. However 3a) Absorbing material from neighbor star is an alternative supplying nuclear fuel, 3b) supplying the nuclear fuel, during a long period of the passing through in an HII Cloud passage is main fuel supply type that is the most useful one.
4. The cracked, in other words blockaded White Dwarf in step.2 has created a new but mysterious planetary system. We can call it “Ghost Planetary System” because there was cold, black and huge iron debris instead of the central star and some cold and black and more little iron debris were rotating around it. For example the second of them (Now third) was have 6960 km of the longest diameter, that maintains to be the denser (5.52 Ton/m3) planet to the Earth. (In planetary nebula-2 stage, the central iron debris was the Grand Father of our Sun, (F.W.GIACOBBE, 2003 has stated that of the stellar iron core in his paper.) (3)
5. During that period, the 3b) step took place in the “Beginning Conditions”, was working contemporarily that means our black and cold iron debris continued to absorb heavy elements from its own planetary nebulae that content heavy materials and Hydrogen from surrounding HII cloud. This step may spend a long time to complete the absorption process. As the central huge iron debris completed its fuel demand, its mass has been exceeded the 80 x Jupiter that means the nuclear ignition threshold value and to nuclear fusion began reaction in the deep inversion part of it. Now we can call it Father of the Sun which GAMOW (11) call it Proto Sun. After of this fuel supplying stage the central huge iron debris transformed a “G type” yellow star that exceeded a bit of the “Sandrashekhar Thresh Hold Mass” that means “stability value” which we call it Father of the Sun.
The aim of those of the five step of evolution process was to put an iron core to the some important components of the Solar System. Now Proto Sun was ready to make a miraculous explosion of the Solar System History.
6. At least, just 4.6 Billion years ago, the Proto Sun made a special kind of Nova Explosion and sent the innermost orbits brittle “Silicate salts” which was accumulated in the outer levels of Proto Sun. But the Hydrogen Planets rotating in the outermost orbits keep their Hydrogen contents that they contained in the HII Passing time. (Planetary Nebula-2. Main Nuclear Synthesis). It was a question whether if this Nova Phase was “dwarf one” or not, because the iron debris planets rotating in their orbits were keeping the rocky mantle materials by nearly staying in theirs orbits and saving the Hydrogen Mantle of the Jovian Planets, instead of ejecting to the outermost space. We cannot find any explanation on presence of the iron cores in our planets without existence of a White Dwarf in its evolution series. There is no other explanation except presence of the heavy elements heavier then Bismuth and especially Gold, Silver and Platinum, in the upper crust of the Earth, depending on the existence of the (1-1.5) x M0 mass Red Giant. Here we can call it Grand-Grand Father of the Sun.
7. So the “Fat Sun (V. F. BUCHWALD, 1975)(5) Time” begins in the Sun’s history and “Hadean Time” begins in the Earth’s contemporarily. We can call to the Iron Debris Planets as “giant asteroids with undulated surface” (ANDREAS VOGEL, 1989)(4). Meanwhile the Iron Debris Planets began to pick up the materials rotating on their running way by the “cold precipitation process” that meant it was the beginning of the “Polygenic Heteromorphic Conglomerate Phase” of the innermost terrestrial planets.
8. The configuration of the planets in early days was not a big difference from modern one. The array of the terrestrial rocky planets was Venus, Earth, Mars, Tiamat/Phaeton and the array of the Jovian Giant Gas Planets was Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
9. The Mercury and the Pluto which could not find a place for themselves in the Bode-Titus orbits were set in the updated orbits during the To-Tauri (a Planetary Nebula which occurred in a very-very low intense) Phase. The Poor Tiamat/Phaeton was exploded by the exceeding of the “Roche Limit” against Giant Jupiter because of deformation of a highly elliptical orbit and its 1/1000 remnants were created the asteroid belt which would have a quasi-circular orbit at least. But the bigger portion of them was driven to the inner part of the Solar System and made a big amount of mass transfer to the terrestrials as well. At Least, the Last Sun having a high durability and long life was created after a “Single Stepped To-Tauri Phase”. It was Our Sun
Now we have reached to Our Sun, after seven-step astrophysical operations that occurred from simple beginning condition automatically (means without any forcing), not by a single step “Nebula of Everything”, as seen in this interpretation.
SOLAR TO-TAURI PHASE
First of all, the question of if there was any star “only one time have a To-Tauri Phase” in the observed universe, or not? Yes there was one. It was our Own Sun. All of the reliable data about 3.6 Billion Years ago shows us that Our Sun did it in those days, for only once. But none can explain it easily with this single step of phenomenon process. “There isn’t any stopper (barrier) to avoid Our Sun get into a new To-Tauri Phase, in a second” say some of Astrophysicist.
We have lot information about the terrestrial planets of the Solar System. The intersection presented in Figure-1 shows us some of the physical and geometrical properties of the third terrestrial planet that we live on it. In addition to this we have many information and data related to its chemical properties. Differentiations, alterations, metamorphisms, sedimentations are derived type of material producing agents of the upper part of the Earth. But the main component of the mantle is brittle salts of the silicate acid that we can also call them plutonic/magmatic rocks.
The writer of this article believes that the Jovian Gas Giants may had the same pattern in the deeper part of the Outer Hydrogen Mantles because all of the Jovian’s have a magnetic field that can be produced only by the existence of molten iron cores.
Figure-1 Illustrates an Excellent Sample of the Solar System Planet. (U.Kaynak).
Now if the natural conditions occur to create such a planetary system to the Orphan Orion Branch of Milky Way Galaxy, it will need a Gas Giant star to produce all of the periodic system elements and also a huge amount of iron. In addition to it “G Type Fat Star” will be required to produce the silicate salts for building an isolator type mantle of the iron planets that prevent early crystallization of their iron cores.
The author thanks to Feyza Mehveş Akkoyunlu for reviving of English of article.
(1). ALAN D. BRANDON, RICHARD J. WALKER, IGOR S. PUCHTEL, HARRY BECKER, MUNIR HUMAYUN AND SIDONIE REVILLON, 2003, 186Os–187Os systematics of Gorgona Island komatiites: implications for early growth of the inner core, Earth and Planetary Science Letters Volume 206, Issues 3-4 , 15 February, Pages 411-426.
(2).SYLVIE DERENNE, FRANÇOIS ROBERT, AUDREY SKRZYPCZAK-BONDUELLE, DIDIER GOURIER, LAURENT BINET AND JEAN-NOËL ROUZAUD, 2008, Molecular Evidence for Life in the 3,5 Billion Year Old Warrawoona Chert , Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 272, 476–480.
(3). F.W.GIACOBBE, 2003, Maximum Stellar Iron Core Mass, PRAMANA c Indian Academy of Sciences Vol. 60, No. 3, journal of March 2003 physics pp. 415–422
(4). ANDREAS VOGEL, 1989, The Irregular Shape of the Earth’s Fluid Core, A Comparison of Early Results with Modern Computer Tomography, Inverse Modeling in Exploration Geophysics, 453-463.
(5). V. F. BUCHWALD, 1975, Handbook of Iron Meteorites, v.1-3, University of California Press.
(6). L.B.RONKA,1971, The Ages of the Lunar Seas, Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci, USA, 68(6), 1188-1189.
(7). MUTANEN & HUHMA, 2003, The 3.5 Ga Siurua trondhjemite gneiss in the Archaean Pudasjärvi Granulite Belt, northern Finland, Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland,Vol. 75 (1–2) pp. 51–68
(8).LAURENT REMUSAT, FABIEN PALHOL, FRANÇOIS ROBERT, SYLVIE DERENNE ET CHRISTIAN FRANCE-LANORD, 2006, “Enrichment of deuterium in insoluble organic matter from primitive meteorites: A solar system origin?” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 243, pp 15-25.
(9).A Scientific American Book, 1975,. The Solar System, W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.
(11).GAMOV, G., 1964, A Star Called the Sun, Viking Press.